Difference Between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is considered an autoimmune disease, while type 2 is called a progressive disease. In addition, type 2 is much more common than type 1. Both types are characterized by higher than normal blood sugar levels. But the basic difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes is their cause and development.
Diabetes is a very common metabolic disorder nowadays, where the body is unable to store and use sugar (glucose), which is found in the blood and serves as fuel for body function. Diabetes is classified as type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes.
Types 1 and 2 are common disorders but gestational diabetes occurs at the time of pregnancy in the woman and resolves after childbirth. Earlier type 1 diabetes was known as juvenile onset or insulin-dependent diabetes and type 2 diabetes was known as adult onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes.
Such a medical condition (diabetes) arises because of a hormone called insulin produced by beta cells in the pancreas. This insulin is responsible for regulating blood sugar which in turn provides energy to the cells and tissues of the body. This is done by moving sugar through the blood to all tissues and cells with the help of insulin. But due to the dysfunction in insulin hormone, the flow of sugar (glucose) becomes improper and thus leads to diabetes.
Diabetes can also lead to heart diseases, vision loss, kidney disease, neurological conditions and damage to another organ. In the next article, we’ll take the most important points that differentiate type 1 diabetes with type 2 and a brief description of them.
Definition of type 1 diabetes:
In type 1 diabetes, the body is unable to produce enough insulin due to an overactive immune system. This is a result of the lack of energy production in the body. The main role is played by beta cells, which are present in the pancreas. Since these (beta cells) are the only ones that produce insulin, but in this case, the body’s immune system destroys the beta cells themselves, and thus insulin production is disturbed.
Insulin is the hormone that helps move sugar or glucose through the blood to the body’s tissues. Cells take this glucose as fuel and perform various activities. But due to this autoimmune destruction of beta cells, the whole process stops, and glucose is not able to get to the cells and other parts of the body. Instead, it accumulates in the blood and the cells starve. It causes high blood sugar, which leads to weight loss, diabetic ketoacidosis, dehydration, frequent urination, damage to the body.
Type 1 diabetes is usually seen in childhood or sometimes in adults. Overall 5 percent of people have this type, affecting men and women equally.
Definition of type 2 diabetes:
In type 2 diabetes, the body prevents insulin from working properly, and there is a lack of insulin as needed. Overall, 90-95 percent of people today suffer from type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is a life-long disease that can occur at any stage of life. Typically, type 2 is seen at an older age, although it can also be diagnosed in younger adults.
In this case, the beta cells of the pancreas make a hormone called insulin. But the cells of the body are not able to use them well as per the requirement. This is called insulin resistance. First, the pancreas produces more insulin to meet the demand for glucose in the cells. But it can’t keep up, and sugar assembles instead of blood.
Type 2 diabetes can be hereditary, caused by gene imbalances, excess or excess weight, metabolic syndrome, too much glucose from the liver, or destroyed beta cells. Blurred vision, tingling or numbness in the arms or legs, sores that do not heal, frequent urination are symptoms of type 2 diabetes.
Other risk factors include stress, no physical activity or exercise, smoking, too much or too little, unhealthy lifestyle.
Both types 1 and 2 are diagnosed by the A1C test, fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). As it is a life-long disease, it can damage the kidneys, eyes, heart and blood vessels, wound healing, as well as nerves during pregnancy.
Note: Please Always consult a doctor for health related information.